Make your own free website on Tripod.com

Research Articles

REMEMBER
to bookmark this site so that you can return !
Last Update 10/08/07

Tourette Syndrome—Now What? 
Raising awareness about the full spectrum of Tourette's disorder, with support and accurate information based on the latest research.
TSNW TSNowWhat TouretteNowWhat Tourette Syndrome Now What?

Home
About Us
TS Stories
TS FAQ
About TS
So What?
TS Doctors
TS Books
TS Links
Research Articles
Contact Me

   

Tourette's Syndrome Message Board and Blog!
(An online Tourette syndrome support group where you can meet adults, families and people with Tourette's Syndrome, keep up with the latest research, learn how to cope with Tourette's, and post your questions about Tourette's.)

Click on the links below for recent updates, latest research on Tourette's, and current Tourette's information
  Recent Tourette's Research Findings & Announcements
  Tourette Syndrome Books, Videos, DVDs
  Tourette's Hall of Fame/Shame
  Tourette FAQ and Quotable Quotes
  Tourette's stories in the Media and on the Internet
  Explaining Tourette's to children or talking about Tourette syndrome in the classroom

     


This table contains links to Tourette's syndrome research articles, PubMed abstracts, full-text journal reports, and discussion about Tourette syndrome research articles.  Key findings included.  © 

TABLE OF CONTENTS (click to go directly to a certain section)

ADHD, AD/HD, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Tourette Syndrome
ADHD - Tics and Stimulants (Concerta, Ritalin, methylphenidate, etc.)
Diagnosis of Tourette's syndrome
Genetics of Tourette's Syndrome
Genetics - Bilineal and unilineal transmission
Non-Genetic Factors in Tourette's Syndrome
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Tourette's Syndrome
Other Comorbid Diagnoses (Comorbidities) and Tourette's Syndrome
Other Tourette's Research
PANDAS and Tourette's Syndrome
Rage, Explosive Anger and Tourette's Syndrome
Tic Severity and Tourette's Syndrome Prognosis
Tourette's Treatment and Tourette's Medication
Tourettism and Secondary Causes of Tic Disorders
 

Date Title Authors Links
  TIC SEVERITY, TOURETTE'S PROGNOSIS    
Jan-06 Adulthood outcome of tic and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity in children with tourette syndrome.  This study extends upon the Jul-98 Yale study on the course of tic severity in Tourette Syndrome.  It found that OCD symptoms tended to peak about two years after tic symptoms, and that "increased childhood IQ was strongly associated with increased OCD severity at follow-up. " Bloch MH, Peterson BS, Scahill L, Otka J, Katsovich L, Zhang H, Leckman JF. PubMed
Oct-05 Caudate volumes in childhood predict symptom severity in adults with Tourette syndrome.  Examines relationship of brain volumes to tic severity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in adulthood. Bloch MH, Leckman JF, Zhu H, Peterson BS. PubMed
Nov-04 Reexamining Tic persistence and Tic-associated impairment in Tourette's Disorder: findings from a naturalistic follow-up study.  Tic-associated impairment is significantly reduced for most youth at 2-year follow-up.  "These results support the view that TD is a persistent disorder, but suggest a dissociation between tic persistence and tic-associated dysfunction." Coffey BJ, Biederman J, Geller D, Frazier J, Spencer T, Doyle R, Gianini L, Small A, Frisone DF, Magovcevic M, Stein N, Faraone SV. PubMed

Discussion
Oct-03 Objective assessments of longitudinal outcome in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome.  "Adult patients who considered themselves tic-free were often inaccurate in their self-assessment." Pappert EJ, Goetz CG, Louis ED, Blasucci L, Leurgans S. PubMed
Discussion
TS+ Website
Jun-01 Long-term follow-up of an epidemiologically defined cohort of patients with Tourette syndrome.  "Tourette syndrome is a developmental ... disorder with a long-term course that is favorable for most patients." Burd L, Kerbeshian PJ, Barth A, Klug MG, Avery PK, Benz B. PubMed

Discussion
Jul-98 Course of tic severity in Tourette syndrome: the first two decades.  The landmark Yale study which showed that tic severity is not correlated with the onset of puberty, and that most tics remit or subside as children pass through adolescence. Leckman JF, Zhang H, Vitale A, Lahnin F, Lynch K, Bondi C, Kim YS, Peterson BS.

PubMed
Full-text PDF
Discussion1
Discussion2
Discussion3

       
  DIAGNOSIS of TOURETTE'S SYNDROME    
Aug-05 Tourette syndrome and chronic tics in a sample of children and adolescents.  "Findings seem to indicate that Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder are part of the same disease entity, with Tourette syndrome being a more severe and complex form of tic disorder." Saccomani L, Fabiana V, Manuela B, Giambattista R. PubMed

Discussion
Feb-02 A factor analysis of tic symptoms in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome.  "It is unlikely that ADHD in the absence of tics is a variant expression of the genetic factors important for Tourette's disorder. It is possible that ADHD is associated with increasing clinical severity but not with the underlying genetic diathesis."  Discussion of four f sets of symptoms (aggressive, compulsive, pure tics, and tapping/absence of grunting) explaining symptom variance in patients with TS. Alsobrook JP 2nd, Pauls DL. PubMed


Discussion

Jun-01 Prospective, longitudinal study of tic, obsessive-compulsive, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders in an epidemiological sample.  "In fact, little or no evidence exists to support the nosological distinction between transient tics, chronic tics, and TS. The only difference between tic disorders seems to be their respective duration and number of symptoms, which is established by definition of the syndromes." Peterson BS, Pine DS, Cohen P, Brook JS. PubMed

Discussion

       
  AD/HD and TOURETTE'S SYNDROME    
Aug-04 Relative contribution of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and tic severity to social and behavioral problems in tic disorders.  "... correlations with ADHD severity, but not tic severity, were obtained. ...There was no significant correlation between tic severity and ADHD severity. Thus, in patients with a tic disorder, the presence and severity of ADHD are the main predictors of associated behavioral and social problems. Hoekstra PJ, Steenhuis MP, Troost PW, Korf J, Kallenberg CG, Minderaa RB. PubMed

Discussion

Apr-04 Association of cortical disinhibition with tic, ADHD, and OCD severity in Tourette syndrome.  "The correlation of cortical disinhibition was greater with ADHD symptoms severity than with tic severity." Gilbert DL, Bansal AS, Sethuraman G, Sallee FR, Zhang J, Lipps T, Wassermann EM. PubMed

Discussion

Jan-03 Disruptive behavior in children with Tourette's syndrome: association with ADHD comorbidity, tic severity, and functional impairment.  "Children with TS-only did not differ from unaffected controls on the parent ratings of aggression and delinquent behavior or on the teacher ratings of conduct problems.  Comorbid ADHD is highly associated with disruptive behavior and functional impairment in children with TS." Sukhodolsky DG, Scahill L, Zhang H, Peterson BS, King RA, Lombroso PJ, Katsovich L, Findley D, Leckman JF. PubMed

Discussion1


DIscussion2
Apr-01 Impact of tic disorders on ADHD outcome across the life cycle: findings from a large group of adults with and without ADHD.   "A ... greater proportion of adults with ADHD than those without ADHD had tic disorders. Tic disorders followed a mostly remitting course and had little impact on functional capacities." Spencer TJ, Biederman J, Faraone S, Mick E, Coffey B, Geller D, Kagan J, Bearman SK, Wilens T. PubMed
Feb-00 Social and emotional adjustment in children affected with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: associations with ADHD and family functioning. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Carter AS, O'Donnell DA, Schultz RT, Scahill L, Leckman JF, Pauls DL. PubMed

TSNW Website

Sep-99 The 4-year course of tic disorders in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Spencer T, Biederman M, Coffey B, Geller D, Wilens T, Faraone S. PubMed
Doctor's Guide
TSNW Website
Oct-98 Disentangling the overlap between Tourette's disorder and ADHD.  "These findings confirm previously noted associations between Tourette's syndrome and OCD but suggest that disruptive behavioral, mood, and anxiety disorders as well as cognitive dysfunctions may be accounted for by comorbidity with ADHD." Spencer T, Biederman J, Harding M, O'Donnell D, Wilens T, Faraone S, Coffey B, Geller D. PubMed

Discussion

Doctor's Guide

Oct-98 Sustained attention and impulsivity in children with Tourette syndrome: comorbidity and confounds.  "Impaired sustained attention and impulsivity on a Continuous Performance Task were uncommon in the TS-Only group ... The TS-ADHD group ... had a higher rate of whole-body tics than the TS-Only group, raising questions about the diagnosis of ADHD in TS. " Sherman EM, Shepard L, Joschko M, Freeman RD. PubMed

Discussion

       
  AD/HD - TICS and STIMULANTS    
Sum-2004 Emergence of tics in children with ADHD: impact of once-daily OROS methylphenidate therapy.  " ... MPH-based therapy does not significantly induce or exacerbate tics in children with ADHD." Palumbo D, Spencer T, Lynch J, Co-Chien H, Faraone SV. PubMed

Discussion

TSNW Website

Jul-03 Tourette's syndrome: are stimulants safe?  "... placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trials have consistently shown that certain stimulants, particularly methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine, are effective, well tolerated, and safe when administered to treat ADHD in children with tics." Kurlan R PubMed

Discussion

TSNW Website

Feb-02 Treatment of ADHD in children with tics: a randomized controlled trial.  "Methylphenidate and clonidine (particularly in combination) are effective for ADHD in children with comorbid tics.  Recommendations to avoid methylphenidate in these children because of concerns of worsening tics are unsupported by this trial." Tourette's Syndrome Study Group PubMed

Discussion

TSNW Website
Aug-99 Do typical clinical doses of methylphenidate cause tics in children treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder?  "Doses of MPH based on the typical clinical titration procedure did not produce significantly more tics than the placebo in children with or without preexisting (mild to moderate) tics." Law SF, Schachar RJ. PubMed

Discussion

TSNW Website

Apr-99 Stimulant medication withdrawal during long-term therapy in children with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and chronic multiple tic disorder.  Nolan EE, Gadow KD, Sprafkin J. PubMed
Discussion
TSNW Website
       
  GENETICS of TOURETTE'S SYNDROME    
Oct-05

Genetic Breakthrough Yields Clue to Tourette Syndrome.  Information about the SLITRK1 gene mutation, found in only 1 - 2 % of Tourette's patients.

Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc. TSA Website

TSNW Blog
Nov-99 A complete genome screen in sib pairs affected by Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. The Tourette Syndrome Association International Consortium for Genetics.  "The multipoint maximum-likelihood scores for two regions (4q and 8p) were suggestive." No Authors Listed PubMed
Feb-94 Evidence against a genetic relationship between Tourette's syndrome and anxiety, depression, panic and phobic disorders. Pauls DL, Leckman JF, Cohen DJ. PubMed
Sep-93 Familial relationship between Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome, attention deficit disorder, learning disabilities, speech disorders, and stuttering. Pauls DL, Leckman JF, Cohen DJ. PubMed
May-93 Evidence for autosomal dominant transmission in Tourette's syndrome. United Kingdom cohort study. Eapen V, Pauls DL, Robertson MM. PubMed
Dec-92 The genetics of obsessive compulsive disorder and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Pauls DL. PubMed
Jan-91 A family study of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Pauls DL, Raymond CL, Stevenson JM, Leckman JF. PubMed
Dec-86 Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Evidence supporting a genetic relationship. Pauls DL, Towbin KE, Leckman JF, Zahner GE, Cohen DJ. PubMed
Dec-86 Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Evidence against a genetic relationship. Pauls DL, Hurst CR, Kruger SD, Leckman JF, Kidd KK, Cohen DJ. PubMed
Oct-86 The inheritance of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and associated behaviors. Evidence for autosomal dominant transmission. Pauls DL, Leckman JF. PubMed
  Genetics - Bilineal / Unilineal Transmission    
Aug-03 Children at familial risk for Tourette's disorder: Child and parent diagnoses.  "These findings support the hypothesis that at least some cases of TD result from a complex genetic etiology." McMahon WM, Carter AS, Fredine N, Pauls DL. PubMed
Discussion
TS+ Website
Oct-99 Bilineal transmission in Tourette syndrome.  "This study found evidence for bilineal transmission in one fourth of TS families." Hanna PA, Janjua FN, Contant CF, Jankovic J. PubMed
Discussion
TS+ Website
Jan-99 Influence of family history on clinical expression of Tourette's syndrome.  "Although BIL transmission of tics is relatively infrequent in consecutive TS pedigrees, cotransmission of OCB from an otherwise unaffected parent is common and significantly influences development of OCB and self-injurious behaviors, but not tics, in offspring. Genetic heterogeneity, epigenetic factors, and gene-environment interactions may play a more important role than genetic dosage effects in determining tic severity in TS." Lichter DG, Dmochowski J, Jackson LA, Trinidad KS. PubMed

Discussion

TS+ Website

May-96 Bilineal transmission and phenotypic variation of Tourette's disorder in a large pedigree.  "TD in this family is most often a mild disorder but otherwise similar to published clinical cases. Increased morbidity is significantly associated with bilineality." McMahon WM, van de Wetering BJ, Filloux F, Betit K, Coon H, Leppert M. PubMed
Discussion
TS+ Website
       
  NON-GENETIC FACTORS in TS    
Sep-05 Tourette syndrome: current controversies and the battlefield landscape.  "We can't blame faulty parents for a disease rooted in molecules, not ridicules. But the whole-cloth dismissal of psychologic forces in the pathobiology of TS was a strategic error." Swerdlow NR PubMed

Discussion
Apr-99 Recognition and Management of Tourette's Syndrome and Tic Disorders.  "Genetic predisposition is important, but environmental factors influence the risk, the severity and the course of the disorder." Bagheri MM, Kerbeshian J, and Burd L AAFP Article

Discussion
Jul-94 Tourette's syndrome: what are the influences of gender and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder?  "Delivery complications, especially forceps, were associated with being male and with having OCD. Fetal exposure to relatively high levels of coffee, cigarettes, or alcohol predicted OCD in TS probands." Santangelo SL, Pauls DL, Goldstein JM, Faraone SV, Tsuang MT, Leckman JF. PubMed

Discussion

Mar-90 Perinatal factors in the expression of Tourette's syndrome: an exploratory study.  "Severity of maternal life stress during pregnancy, gender of the child, and severe nausea and/or vomiting during the first trimester were found to be significantly associated with current tic severity." Leckman JF, Dolnansky ES, Hardin MT, Clubb M, Walkup JT, Stevenson J, Pauls DL. PubMed

Discussion

       
  OCD and TOURETTE'S SYNDROME    
Nov-05 Chronic tics and Tourette syndrome in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  "Results suggest that there are qualitative and quantitative differences in the ... expression of tic disorders in OCD patients, depending on whether the subject has TS or [chronic tics]." Diniz JB, Rosario-Campos MC, Hounie AG, Curi M, Shavitt RG, Lopes AC, Miguel EC PubMed

Discussion

Aug-05 Tourette syndrome and chronic tics in a sample of children and adolescents.  "Tourette syndrome and chronic tic group were different in family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder and in comorbidity for obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders. Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder were significantly associated in this sample." Saccomani L, Fabiana V, Manuela B, Giambattista R. PubMed

Discussion1


Discussion2
Sep-05 Tic or compulsion?: it's Tourettic OCD.
 
Mansueto CS, Keuler DJ. PubMed
Discussion1
Discussion2
2002 Obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without tics in a clinical sample of children and adolescents.
"Ordering, hoarding, and washing compulsions were more common in those with no tic history...tic-related OCD may be differentiated from non-tic-related OCD ..."
Hanna GL, Piacentini J, Cantwell DP, Fischer DJ, Himle JA, Van Etten M. PubMed
Apr-01 Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome with and without obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with obsessive-compulsive disorder without tics: which symptoms discriminate? Cath DC, Spinhoven P, van Woerkom TC, van de Wetering BJ, Hoogduin CA, Landman AD, Roos RA, Rooijmans HG. PubMed

Discussion
Feb-00 Sensory phenomena in obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette's disorder.  "Sensory phenomena may be an important phenotypic measure for grouping patients along the OCD-Tourette's disorder spectrum.  ... They are all more frequently found in patients with OCD plus Tourette's disorder than in patients with OCD alone." Miguel EC, do Rosario-Campos MC, Prado HS, do Valle R, Rauch SL, Coffey BJ, Baer L, Savage CR, O'Sullivan RL, Jenike MA, Leckman JF. PubMed

Discussion

Dec-86 Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Evidence supporting a genetic relationship. Pauls DL, Towbin KE, Leckman JF, Zahner GE, Cohen DJ. PubMed

Discussion
       
  OTHER COMORBIDITIES and TOURETTE'S    
Aug-04 Tourette Syndrome.  " 'All that tics is not Tourette.' Children with mental retardation, autism, or another neurologically-based developmental disability may have tics for reasons unrelated to the genes that cause TS." Zinner SH TSA Website1
TSA Website2
TSNW Blog
Jul-00 An international perspective on Tourette syndrome: selected findings from 3,500 individuals in 22 countries.  "The small proportion of individuals with TS only reflects a clinical and epidemiological dilemma: most individuals with TS seen and followed in clinics are comorbid and therefore contribute to the idea that TS is necessarily associated with other disorders and behavioral problems ... However, the prevalence of behavioral problems in the TS only group may not differ from the general population " Freeman RD, Fast DK, Burd L, Kerbeshian J, Robertson MM, Sandor P. PubMed

Discussion
May-00 Anxiety disorders and tic severity in juveniles with Tourette's disorder.  "Findings suggest that non-OCD anxiety disorders in general and separation anxiety disorder in particular may be significantly associated with tic severity in referred TD patients." Coffey BJ, Biederman J, Smoller JW, Geller DA, Sarin P, Schwartz S, Kim GS. PubMed
May-00 Distinguishing illness severity from tic severity in children and adolescents with Tourette's disorder.  "The findings indicate that comorbid mood disorders are strongly associated with illness morbidity in youths with TD, highlighting the importance of attention to comorbidity in patients with TD." Coffey BJ, Biederman J, Geller DA, Spencer TJ, Kim GS, Bellordre CA, Frazier JA, Cradock K, Magovcevic M. PubMed
       
  PANDAS    
Dec-05 Serum autoantibodies do not differentiate PANDAS and Tourette syndrome from controls.  "Results do not support the hypothesis that PANDAS and Tourette syndrome are secondary to antineuronal antibodies. Longitudinal studies are required to determine whether autoantibodies correlate with fluctuations in clinical activity." Singer HS, Hong JJ, Yoon DY, Williams PN. PubMed

Discussion

Nov-05 Post-streptococcal autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system.  "Routine screening of patients with Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder for post-streptococcal autoimmune abnormalities is not be recommended at present." Dale RC PubMed

Discussion

Jun-04 Prospective longitudinal study of children with tic disorders and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder: relationship of symptom exacerbations to newly acquired streptococcal infections.  "The results suggest no clear relationship between new GABHS infections and symptom exacerbations in an unselected group of patients with TS and/or OCD." Luo F, Leckman JF, Katsovich L, Findley D, Grantz H, Tucker DM, Lombroso PJ, King RA, Bessen DE PubMed

Discussion

Apr-04 The pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) etiology for tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: hypothesis or entity? Practical considerations for the clinician.  " ... there's not enough evidence to prove a strep infection can trigger tics or psychiatric problems in children." Kurlan R, Kaplan EL. PubMed

Discussion

Apr-04 Lack of effect of intravenous immunoglobulins on tics: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.  "Based on the present results, IVIG cannot be recommended in tic disorders." Hoekstra PJ, Minderaa RB, Kallenberg CG. PubMed

Discussion

Apr-04 Striatal microinfusion of Tourette syndrome and PANDAS sera: failure to induce behavioral changes.  "No significant alterations in stereotypic behavior or movement were observed between the PANDAS, TS, or anti-M5 protein and control groups. Our findings are in contrast to previous reports, and suggest the need for further investigations to determine the validity of the model and of autoimmune-mediated hypotheses for pediatric movement disorders." Loiselle CR, Lee O, Moran TH, Singer HS. PubMed

Discussion

Jul-03 PANDAS: a commentary.  "We conclude that PANDAS is an intriguing hypothesis that requires further confirmation."  Singer HS, Loiselle C. PubMed

Discussion
Feb-03 Antistreptococcal, neuronal, and nuclear antibodies in Tourette syndrome.  "We suggest that longitudinal rather than single-point-in-time laboratory measurements be evaluated before definitive conclusions are drawn on associations between the diagnosis of Tourette syndrome, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, or obsessive-compulsive disorders and ... antibody titers." Loiselle CR, Wendlandt JT, Rohde CA, Singer HS. PubMed


Discussion

Sep-00 Psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives of children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS).  "The rates of tic disorders and OCD in first-degree relatives of pediatric probands with PANDAS are higher than those reported in the general population and are similar to those reported previously for tic disorders and OCD." Lougee L, Perlmutter SJ, Nicolson R, Garvey MA, Swedo SE. PubMed

Discussion

May-00 Infection: a stimulus for tic disorders.  This study found that 53% of all patients with tic disorders had acute exacerbations of symptoms (regardless of PANDAS diagnosis), and raises the issue of parental bias in PANDAS research. Singer HS, Giuliano JD, Zimmerman AM, Walkup JT. Pubmed

Discussion

       
  RAGE AND EXPLOSIVE ANGER    
Jan-03 Disruptive behavior in children with Tourette's syndrome: association with ADHD comorbidity, tic severity, and functional impairment.  "Children with TS-only did not differ from unaffected controls on the parent ratings of aggression and delinquent behavior or on the teacher ratings of conduct problems.  Comorbid ADHD is highly associated with disruptive behavior and functional impairment in children with TS." Sukhodolsky DG, Scahill L, Zhang H, Peterson BS, King RA, Lombroso PJ, Katsovich L, Findley D, Leckman JF. PubMed

Discussion
Oct-00 Explosive outbursts in children with Tourette's disorder.  "The presence of [explosive outbursts] should alert the clinician to underlying comorbid conditions." Budman CL, Bruun RD, Park KS, Lesser M, Olson M. PubMed

Discussion
Jul-00 An international perspective on Tourette syndrome: selected findings from 3,500 individuals in 22 countries.  "Anger control problems, sleep difficulties, coprolalia, and self-injurious behavior only reach impressive levels in individuals with comorbidity. Anger control problems are strongly correlated with comorbidity ... Because behavioral problems are associated with comorbidity, their presence should dictate a high index of suspicion of the latter." Freeman RD, Fast DK, Burd L, Kerbeshian J, Robertson MM, Sandor P. PubMed

Discussion
Dec-99 Aggressive behaviour in children with Tourette syndrome and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder.  "Evidence that aggressive behaviour observed in children with TS may be associated with comorbid ADHD or OCD ... consistent with the ... observation that most TS patients have only minimal symptoms, which do not interfere with their daily functioning." Stephens RJ, Sandor P. PubMed

Discussion
Nov-98 Rage attacks in children and adolescents with Tourette's disorder: a pilot study.  "This pilot study suggests that rage attacks in Tourette's disorder may be related to the presence of comorbid disorders." Budman CL, Bruun RD, Park KS, Olson ME. PubMed
TSA Press Release
Discussion
       
  TOURETTE'S TREATMENT / MEDICATION    
Nov-05 Habit reversal training for tic disorders in children and adolescents. Piacentini J, Chang S. PubMed
Discussion
Oct-05 Habit reversal versus supportive psychotherapy in Tourette's disorder: A randomized controlled trial and predictors of treatment response. Deckersbach T, Rauch S, Buhlmann U, Wilhelm S. PubMed

Discussion

Sep-05 Tourette syndrome: current controversies and the battlefield landscape.  "The most recent controversy in TS treatment relates to the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Neither the efficacy nor the safety of DBS in TS is known, and neither electrode placement nor stimulation parameters have been studied systematically." Swerdlow NR PubMed

TSA Website

Discussion
Sep-03 EEG biofeedback vs. placebo treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study.  "EEG biofeedback was found to be no more effective than the placebo control."  See discussion for biofeedback - neurofeedback results with respect to TS. Heywood C, Beale I. PubMed

Discussion

Apr-03 A placebo-controlled trial of risperidone in Tourette syndrome.  Risperidone (risperdal) "appears to be safe and effective for short-term treatment of tics in children or adults with TS. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate the durability of efficacy and safety over time." Scahill L, Leckman JF, Schultz RT, Katsovich L, Peterson BS. PubMed

Discussion

Sep-01 Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of mecamylamine monotherapy for Tourette's disorder.  Mecamylamine (inversine) "as monotherapy does not appear to be an effective treatment for tics or the total spectrum of symptoms associated with TD." Silver AA, Shytle RD, Sheehan KH, Sheehan DV, Ramos A, Sanberg PR. PubMed

Discussion

Jul-01 A placebo-controlled study of guanfacine in the treatment of children with tic disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  Guanfacine (tenex) "appears to be a safe and effective treatment for children with tic disorders and ADHD." Scahill L, Chappell PB, Kim YS, Schultz RT, Katsovich L, Shepherd E, Arnsten AF, Cohen DJ, Leckman JF. PubMed

Discussion

       
  TOURETTE'S  RESEARCH - OTHER    
Apr-05 Decision making in pathological gambling: a comparison between pathological gamblers, alcohol dependents, persons with Tourette syndrome, and normal controls.  "Deficiencies in decision making processes in the PG group were also present in the AD group, but not in the TS group." Goudriaan AE, Oosterlaan J, de Beurs E, van den Brink W. PubMed
Jan-05 Speech disfluencies in individuals with Tourette syndrome.  See discussion for links to studies of developmental stuttering, speech disorders, and speech disfluency in Tourette's syndrome. De Nil LF, Sasisekaran J, Van Lieshout PH, Sandor P. PubMed

Discussion

Sep-04 Restless legs in Tourette syndrome.  "RLS in probands was linked significantly to maternal RLS but not paternal RLS, suggesting that a maternal RLS factor may contribute to the variable expression of TS." Lesperance P, Djerroud N, Diaz Anzaldua A, Rouleau GA, Chouinard S, Richer F; Montreal Tourette Study Group. PubMed

Discussion

Apr-04 Migraine headache in patients with Tourette syndrome.  "The frequency of migraine headache in a clinic sample of TS subjects was nearly 4-fold more than the frequency ... reported in the general population." Kwak C, Vuong KD, Jankovic J. PubMed

Discussion

Mar-04 Association of small life events with self reports of tic severity in pediatric and adult tic disorder patients: a prospective longitudinal study.  See the discussion on the TS "plus" website for an analysis of the research on stress and Tourette's syndrome. Hoekstra PJ, Steenhuis MP, Kallenberg CG, Minderaa RB. PubMed

TS+ Site

Dec-03 Premonitory sensory phenomenon in Tourette's syndrome.  "Premonitory sensations are an important aspect of motor tics and some patients perceive motor tics as a voluntary movement in response to an involuntary sensation." Kwak C, Dat Vuong K, Jankovic J. PubMed

Discussion

TS+ Website
Oct-03 Premonitory sensory phenomena and suppressibility of tics in Tourette syndrome: developmental aspects in children and adolescents. Banaschewski T, Woerner W, Rothenberger A. PubMed
Discussion
TS+ Website
Jul-03 Disturbed sleep in children with Tourette syndrome: a polysomnographic study.  "Children with TS have disturbed sleep quality with increased arousal phenomena, which both may be intrinsic to the disorder and might trigger tics and other behavioral problems during daytime."
 
Kostanecka-Endress T, Banaschewski T, Kinkelbur J, Wullner I, Lichtblau S, Cohrs S, Ruther E, Woerner W, Hajak G, Rothenberger A. PubMed

Discussion

Oct-02 Tourette syndrome associated with body temperature dysregulation: possible involvement of an idiopathic hypothalamic disorder. Kessler AR PubMed
Aug-02 Tics and problem behaviors in schoolchildren: prevalence, characterization, and associations. See Discussion for analysis of this article. Snider LA, Seligman LD, Ketchen BR, Levitt SJ, Bates LR, Garvey MA, Swedo SE. Discussion
Dec-01 Oculomotor abnormalities in boys with tourette syndrome with and without ADHD.  "TS is associated with delay in initiation of motor response ... Signs of impaired response inhibition and variability in motor response appear to be associated with the presence of ADHD  ... the study makes clear the importance of identifying and treating the comorbid conditions often associated with TS ... in children with TS it is not uncommon for the symptoms associated with ADHD to have a greater impact on social and academic function than do the tics themselves. It is therefore critical that clinicians not simply focus on identifying and treating tics, but also on identifying and treating problems associated with ADHD." Mostofsky SH, Lasker AG, Singer HS, Denckla MB, Zee DS. PubMed

Full Text

Discussion

Jan-01 Executive function in fluency and recall measures among children with Tourette syndrome or ADHD.
 
Mahone EM, Koth CW, Cutting L, Singer HS, Denckla MB. PubMed

Discussion

May-99 Tourette's syndrome mimicking asthma. Hogan MB, Wilson NW. PubMed
Jan-98 Visual-motor integration functioning in children with Tourette syndrome.  See discussion for links to information about Tourette's syndrome and handwriting. Schultz RT, Carter AS, Gladstone M, Scahill L, Leckman JF, Peterson BS, Zhang H, Cohen DJ, Pauls D. PubMed

Full-text PDF

Discussion
       
  TOURETTISM and SECONDARY TICS    
Mar-05 Secondary tics and tourettism.  "Motor and phonic tics are most frequently due to Tourette syndrome, but there are many other causes of tics." Mejia NI, Jankovic J. PubMed
Full-Text PDF
Discussion
Apr-99 Recognition and Management of Tourette's Syndrome and Tic Disorders.  See Table 5, Secondary Causes of Tic Disorders Bagheri MM, Kerbeshian J, and Burd L AAFP Article
Discussion
Apr-97 Hypothesis III. Tourette syndrome is only one of several causes of a developmental basal ganglia syndrome. Palumbo D, Maughan A, Kurlan R. PubMed
Discussion

Copyright 2005.  All rights reserved.  
No part of this publication may be copied, re-printed, or used in any form without my prior consent.  Contact me at TSNowWhat@aol.com

A Note to a certain TS webmaster who uses other people's writing without permission, attribution, or quotes: 
don't even think about it.  You don't want to go there.

Previous Page                                                 Next page

(Just a note:  this website was designed for newcomers to Tourette's syndrome, to be read through in page order. 
You can browse the pages in the order you desire, but if you're new to Tourette syndrome,
you may get a better overview by reading through the pages in order, by clicking on the Next Page links throughout.)

  Strengths and advantages associated with Tourette's syndrome
Medical literature supports the common lore that children with Tourette syndrome have uncommon gifts.

Growing up with Tourette's Syndrome:  Information for Kids
A new website about Tourette syndrome, with information targeted to ages 5–8, ages 9–13, and a section for parents.

HBO Documentary on Tourette's Syndrome   
I Have Tourette's but Tourette's Doesn't Have Me
Video clips of Tourette's syndrome HBO Documentary
   

First Five Things to Do After Your Child Is Diagnosed with Tourette Syndrome
I may not agree with all of them, but # 1 is interesting.

 Tourette Syndrome Research Article Summary

  Controversy, myth, and inaccurate information about Tourette syndrome
 Dr. Phil on Tourette's syndrome and Asperger's syndrome:  "Extreme Disorders" and brain imaging 
  Dr. Laura Schlessinger on Tourette's  
David Comings, M.D. - Hope Press - The Gene Bomb

Inaccurate definition of Tourette's Syndrome by Joseph Jankovic, M.D. in the New England Journal of Medicine
Deep Brain Stimulation, Tourette's Syndrome, and "Miracle Workers"
    
Disclaimer - Just a Mom !
I am not a medical person and am not qualified to give medical advice.
Please discuss your treatment with your personal physician.
PLEASE NOTE:  I am NOT affiliated with another Tourette's website which uses the tourettenowwhat name!
(Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery?  Or another webmaster trick to derive traffic from my name?)


A word about spelling

The official name of the condition, according to the DSM-IV-TR, 307.23, is Tourette's disorder. 
Tourette's is also referred to as TS, Tourette Syndrome, Tourette's syndrome, GTS, and Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome.
Common misspellings are tourettes syndrome, tourretts, tourrettes, touretts, terrets, terets, turettes, turetts, turets, turetes and turrets syndrom.
Tourette's disease is a common misnomer (it's not a disease).
Tick is a common misspelling:  ticks are nasty critters that suck blood from dogs and people.  People with Tourette's disorder have tics.

Tourette's Syndrome - Now What?   |    About Us    |    Tourette Syndrome Stories    |  More Tourette's Syndrome Stories
Tourette's Syndrome FAQ   |   About Tourette's syndrome    |  Tourette's Syndrome - So What?
Tourette's Syndrome Doctors    |   Tourette's Syndrome Books    |  Tourette's Syndrome Links   |   ALL ABOUT TICS

Tourette's Syndrome Research articles   |   Other Tourette Syndrome Links    |   International Links - Síndrome de Tourette en español – castellano
Dr. Laura on Tourette's Syndrome    |   David E. Comings, Tourette's and Hope Press     |    NEJM - Jankovic article on Tourette's Syndrome

 Blog about Tourette Syndrome - Tourette's Disorder    |    Tourette's Disorder Information   |  All About Tourettes syndrome  |  Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet
Upcoming Tourette's Events  |   Tourette’s Message Board and Blog    |   Tourette’s Syndrome NW - Guest Books   |  Contact Me  


If you're looking for the Tourettes Syndrome Guy video or Tourettes Guy video clips:
they're not here, but please stay and browse for some accurate information about Tourette's syndrome.


  Copyright 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007.  All rights reserved.  
No part of this publication may be copied, re-printed, or used in any form without my prior consent.