|Click on the links below for recent updates, latest research on Tourette's, and current Tourette's information|
|• Recent Tourette's Research Findings & Announcements|
|• Tourette Syndrome Books, Videos, DVDs|
|• Tourette's Hall of Fame/Shame|
|• Tourette FAQ and Quotable Quotes|
|• Tourette's stories in the Media and on the Internet|
|• Explaining Tourette's to children or talking about Tourette syndrome in the classroom|
The 4-Year Course of Tic Disorders in Boys With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Thomas Spencer, MD; Joseph Biederman, MD; Barbara Coffey, MD; Daniel Geller, MD; Timothy Wilens; MD; Stephen Faraone, PhD, Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol 56, No. 9, September 1999, pp 842-847.
In order to examine tic disorders in an ongoing prospective follow-up study of males with ADHD, 128 male children and adolescents with ADHD and 110 male controls were evaluated at baseline and then again 4 years later. The study attempted to answer questions such as whether stimulant treatment precipitates or worsens tics and whether stimulants adversely affect the outcome of tic disorders. "Whether comorbid tics affect the course of ADHD and whether treatment for ADHD affects the course of tics has important clinical implications" in the risk vs. benefit analysis of stimulant treatment of children with ADHD.
The preliminary study concluded that "comorbidity with a tic disorder has a limited effect on ADHD outcome."
"Compared with controls, subjects with ADHD showed more tic disorders at baseline and more new onsets were reported at follow-up. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and tic disorders appeared to be independent in course: in contrast to low rates of ADHD remission, tic disorders mostly remitted. The age adjusted rate of ADHD remission was 20% and that of tic remission, 65%. Tic disorders had little effect on the psychosocial functioning of subjects with ADHD."
"The overall rate of tic disorders was significantly greater in the children with ADHD vs. controls" (34% vs. 6%).
"No statistically significant differences were detected between subjects with ADHD with and without comorbid tic disorders in any of the multiple outcome measures assessed: psychopathological, cognitive, interpersonal, family, and school functioning."
"The rate of onset of tic disorders did not differ by either the presence or absence of lifetime exposure to stimulants or recent exposure to stimulants."
"Our results suggest that the treatment of ADHD with stimulants has a limited effect on the course of tics."
"The findings presented in this report should be evaluated in light of their methodological limitations."
"Despite these limitations, our findings from a large sample of male children and adolescents with ADHD suggest that while tic disorders are overrepresented in ADHD, they have a limited effect on the course of ADHD."
(Just a note: this website was
designed for newcomers to Tourette's syndrome, to be read through in page order.
Strengths and advantages associated with Tourette's syndrome
Growing up with Tourette's
Syndrome: Information for Kids
HBO Documentary on Tourette's Syndrome
Syndrome Research Article Summary
Tourette's Syndrome - Now What?
| About Us
Tourette Syndrome Stories |